Date of Submission



This is an age where information is accessed, shared and communicated in new and increasingly different ways. Students have more access at home to digital devices and their applications than ever before and are entering school much more digitally literate. However, there remain many primary school teachers who are applying Information Communication Technology (ICT) in the classroom, but are not yet integrating it into classroom practice in a way that will transform learning. ICT continues to be used in ways that support current pedagogical practice rather than transform their practice. Despite the expectations of government, school systems and society to develop 21st century learning skills through ICT integration, this is not being realized. Teachers’ slow uptake of pedagogical practices required to transform learning is still widespread and, considering the increase of digital devices in primary schools, remains an issue of concern. This study explores ICT integration and transformative practices of five primary school teachers. It examines the complex set of factors that influence transformative learning practices at two Sydney Catholic schools. The study identifies lack of time, teacher attitudes and beliefs, the level of ICT resourcing and teachers’ knowledge and skills of ICT pedagogical practice as the four major factors influencing transformative ICT practices. The study concludes that taking advantage of teachers’ positive attitudes to drive transformative learning practices using digital pedagogies is best supported by strategically planned opportunities providing time for teachers’ personal learning as well as professional development. Furthermore, it concludes that knowledge and skills development of ICT pedagogical practices that actively engage students in creating knowledge to transform learning is enhanced in Stage 2 classrooms by an increase in the number of devices available to students and teachers to support opportunities for teacher professional learning and importantly support the implementation of transformative learning experiences for students.


School of Education

Document Type


Access Rights

Open Access


194 pages

Degree Name

Master of Education (Research) (MEd(Res))


Faculty of Education and Arts