Rojee Joshi

Date of Submission



This thesis examines five cases of social enterprise organisations from Nepal, a geographically challenged, politically volatile country with poor infrastructure, a high poverty gradient, and high levels of social and gender disparity. The study aims to explore how organisations following principles of social enterprise can address the multifaceted challenges of youth unemployment. Specifically, the study aims to understand the contribution of social enterprise organisations to the improvement of livelihoods of young people in Nepal, through job creation and market integration, fundamentally adopting market principles to address development challenges. The research contributes to the body of empirical literature on social enterprises from Nepal, and social value creation processes through the use of empirical evidence. It uses the qualitative method of analysing the social value creation processes which subsequently informs a range of challenges faced by young people attempting to participate in the market.

In terms of methodology, the research implemented a three-step process: literature review, an organisational survey, and five qualitative case studies. Thirty-four self-identified social enterprise organisations were used for survey analysis. Five organisations were selected for detailed case analysis. Using cross-case analysis methods, interviews from 17 representatives and 30 young men and women aged 18– 30 were analysed . A combination of development theory, the theory of social entrepreneurship, and youth perspectives, is used in establishing the contribution of social enterprises to the improvement of the livelihoods of young people in Nepal.

The overall contribution of social enterprises is unfolding in two distinct ways. The first level of contribution is revealed in the form of organisations attempting to become financially self-sustainable and market-competitive. The second level of contribution is demonstrated by limited social and economic change as immediate outcomes, and chances of significant and sustainable social change in the longer term. By demonstrating the change process at an organisational level as well as at the participants’ level, the study presents a meaningful explanation of a social enterprise model of development in improving livelihood of young people in Nepal.


School of Arts

Document Type


Access Rights

Open Access


241 pages

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Faculty of Education and Arts

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Research Location