Ninawa Butrus

Date of Submission



The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the relationships between personality traits, dysfunctional schemas and personality disorder (PD) features. Previous research has established that personality traits and dysfunctional schemas are associated with personality disorders (PDs). However, comparatively little research has examined the relationships between personality traits and dysfunctional schemas or explored whether dysfunctional schemas have incremental validity in the prediction of PD features over and above personality traits. Thus, three studies were conducted to understand PD features from an integrated perspective that incorporates some of the key elements from both trait and cognitive-behavioural theories of PDs. Study 1 (N = 313) and Study 2 (N = 269) investigated the relationships between personality traits, dysfunctional schemas and PD features in non-clinical analogue samples through the use of several self-report measures. Correlational analyses in Study 1 and Study 2 revealed that general personality traits from the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and maladaptive personality traits from the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) model, respectively, were meaningfully correlated with: (a) dysfunctional schemas conceptualised as either early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) or dysfunctional PD beliefs; and (b) theoretically-relevant PD features. Further, correlational analyses in Study 1 revealed a large number of positive zero-order correlations between EMSs, dysfunctional PD beliefs and PD features. (...)


School of Psychology

Document Type


Access Rights

Open Access


352 pages

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Included in

Psychology Commons