Simon Rice

Date of Submission



Within the last decade a number of male specific depression rating scales have been developed. Unfortunately each of these scales encompasses significant psychometric issues, thus comprising their validity. The present dissertation reports five quantitative studies based on data from community samples with the aim of developing a psychometrically valid male specific depression rating scale. As defined by DSM-IV, Major Depressive Disorder comprises a range of internalising symptoms (e.g., sadness, worthlessness, guilt, fatigue). These internalising symptoms contravene traditional masculine role norms such as emotional stoicism, self-reliance and aggression. Given this, the masculine depression framework theorises that when depressed, some men may experience atypical depression symptoms that are more congruent with masculine role norms (e.g., substance abuse, anger, emotional suppression, risk-taking). However, as these masculine type symptoms fall outside present diagnostic criteria, it is possible that males experiencing such symptoms may not be identified as depressed in primary care settings...


School of Psychology

Document Type


Access Rights

Open Access


397 pages

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Included in

Psychology Commons