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Hypertension is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide and the incidence of resistant hypertension is increasing. Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) offers a new approach to reaching blood pressure goals by targeting the renal nerves. The technique has demonstrated significant and sustained reductions in blood pressure (BP) in the Symplicity HTN-1 and Symplicity HTN-2 clinical trials. The Global SYMPLICITY Registry aims to demonstrate safety and effectiveness in a 'real-world' patient population. Real-world RDN experience has emphasised that patient selection is crucial to successful outcomes; a multidisciplinary referral network is recommended to increase awareness of the procedure and identify patients who are likely to respond best to RDN. Further advances in catheter technology have led to the development of the multi-electrode Symplicity Spyral™ multi-electrode catheter; preliminary data from the feasibility study using the Symplicity Spyral catheter indicate clinical efficacy and procedural safety with reduced procedure times. The Symplicity Spyral catheter is not yet commercially available. The indications of RDN may also expand beyond resistant hypertension - encouraging data have been seen in patients with moderate treatment resistant hypertension. Furthermore, RDN may be beneficial in other clinical states characterised by sympathetic nervous system overactivation including heart failure and chronic kidney disease. Additional data are needed to evaluate the efficacy of RDN in these disease states.

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