Spencer, L. (2015). Deriving meaning for social franchising from commercial franchising and social enterprise. Journal of Marketing Channels,22(3), N.C. Herndon. 163-174. United States: Routledge. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/1046669X.2015.1071585
Auntie Anne’s Pretzels, the American Red Cross, and IKEA are franchises for a social beneﬁt, but are they social franchises? There is a diversity of perceptions of what is meant by the term social franchising but no consensus on the precise meaning. Given that social franchising is a relatively new area of research and that a crucial ﬁrst step in research on any topic is to deﬁne its parameters, this article derives a set of indicators for the phenomenon of social franchising by bringing together three strands of scholarship: social franchising, commercial franchising, and social enterprise
Thomas More Law School
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