Andrew M. Holwerda
Kevin J. M. Paulussen
Joey S. J. Smeets
Janneau Van Kranenburg
E. M. P. Backx
Annemie P. Gijsen
Joy P. B. Goessens
Lex B. Verdijk
Luc van Loon, Australian Catholic University
Holwerda, A. M, Overkamp, M., Paulussen, K. J, Smeets, J. S, Van Kranenburg, J., Backx, E. M, Gijsen, A. P, Goessens, J. P, Verdijk, L. B & van Loon, L. (2018). Protein supplementation after exercise and before sleep does not further augment muscle mass and strength gains during resistance exercise training in active older men. The Journal of Nutrition,148(11), 1723-1732. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy169
The proposed benefits of protein supplementation on the skeletal muscle adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older adults remain unclear.
The present study assessed whether protein supplementation after exercise and before sleep augments muscle mass and strength gains during resistance exercise training in older individuals.
Forty-one older men [mean ± SEM age: 70 ± 1 y; body mass index (kg/m2): 25.3 ± 0.4] completed 12 wk of whole-body resistance exercise training (3 sessions/wk) and were randomly assigned to ingest either protein (21 g protein, 3 g total leucine, 9 g carbohydrate, 3 g fat; n = 21) or an energy-matched placebo (0 g protein, 25 g carbohydrate, 6 g fat; n = 20) after exercise and each night before sleep. Maximal strength was assessed by 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) strength testing, and muscle hypertrophy was assessed at the whole-body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), upper leg (computed tomography scan), and muscle fiber (biopsy) levels. Muscle protein synthesis rates were assessed during week 12 of training with the use of deuterated water (2H2O) administration.
Leg-extension 1RM increased in both groups (placebo: 88 ± 3 to 104 ± 4 kg; protein: 85 ± 3 to 102 ± 4 kg; P < 0.001), with no differences between groups. Quadriceps cross-sectional area (placebo: 67.8 ± 1.7 to 73.5 ± 2.0 cm2; protein: 68.4 ± 1.4 to 72.3 ± 1.4 cm2; P < 0.001) increased in both groups, with no differences between groups. Muscle fiber hypertrophy occurred in type II muscle fibers (placebo: 5486 ± 418 to 6492 ± 429 μm2; protein: 5367 ± 301 to 6259 ± 391 μm2; P < 0.001), with no differences between groups.Muscle protein synthesis rates were 1.62% ± 0.06% and 1.57% ± 0.05%/d in the placebo and protein groups, respectively, with no differences between groups.
Protein supplementation after exercise and before sleep does not further augment skeletal muscle mass or strength gains during resistance exercise training in active older men. This study was registered at the Netherlands Trial Registry (www.trialregister.nl) as NTR5082.
Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research