Walia, M. K, Castillo-Tandazo, W., Mutsaers, A. J, Martin, T. J & Walkley, C. (2017). Murine models of osteosarcoma: A piece of the translational puzzle. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry,119(6), 4241-4250. United States of America: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1002/jcb.26601
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common cancer of bone in children and young adults. Despite extensive research efforts, there has been no significant improvement in patient outcome for many years. An improved understanding of the biology of this cancer and how genes frequently mutated contribute to OS may help improve outcomes for patients. While our knowledge of the mutational burden of OS is approaching saturation, our understanding of how these mutations contribute to OS initiation and maintenance is less clear. Murine models of OS have now been demonstrated to be highly valid recapitulations of human OS. These models were originally based on the frequent disruption of p53 and Rb in familial OS syndromes, which are also common mutations in sporadic OS. They have been applied to significantly improve our understanding about the functions of recurrently mutated genes in disease. The murine models can be used as a platform for preclinical testing and identifying new therapeutic targets, in addition to testing the role of additional mutations in vivo. Most recently these models have begun to be used for discovery based approaches and screens, which hold significant promise in furthering our understanding of the genetic and therapeutic sensitivities of OS. In this review, we discuss the mouse models of OS that have been reported in the last 3‐5 years and newly identified pathways from these studies. Finally, we discuss the preclinical utilization of the mouse models of OS for identifying and validating actionable targets to improve patient outcome.
Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research
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