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This Review describes the relationship between urban and transport planning and the city environment, the main cardiovascular risk factors (including physical activity, hypertension, and obesity), and cardiovascular disease and mortality. Good evidence exists for a relationship between built environment measures (such as mixed land use, connectivity and walkability, and physical activity), environmental exposures (such as green space, air pollution, and noise), and cardiovascular disease and mortality. Some good evidence exists for a link between transport mode and cardiovascular disease, but evidence is inconsistent for an association between built environment measures and weight status, and between green space and either weight status or physical activity. Further research is needed into the influence of built environment measures on cardiovascular disease and mortality. Urban and transport planning has an important effect on cardiovascular health and its risk factors. Cardiovascular disease and mortality could be reduced by better urban and transport planning that promotes physical activity; reduces levels of air pollution, noise, and heat island effects; and increases green space.


Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research

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Journal Article

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