Dorairaj Prabhakaran
Shuchi Anand
D. A. Watkins
Thomas A. Gaziano
Yangfeng Wu
Jean Claude Mbanya
Rachel Nugent
Vamadevan S. Ajay
Ashkan Afshin
Alma Adler
Mohammed K. Ali
Eric Bateman
Janet Bettger
Robert O. Bonow
Elizabeth Brouwer
Gene Bukhman
Fiona Bull
Peter Burney
Simon Capewell
Juliana Chan
Eeshwar K. Chandrasekar
Jie Chen
Michael H. Criqui
John Dirks
Sagar B. Dugani
Michael Engelgau
Meguid El Nahas
Caroline H. D. Fall
Valery Feigin
F. Gerald. R. Fowkes
Amanda Glassman
Shifalika Goenka
Rajeev Gupta
Babar Hasan
Fred Hersch
Frank Hu
Mark D. Huffman
Samer Jabbour
Deborah Jarvis
Panniyammakal Jeemon
Rohina Joshi
Jemima H. Kamano
Andre Pascal Kengne
Preeti Kudesia
R. Krishna Kumar
Kalyanaraman Kumaran
Estelle V. Lambert
Edward S. Lee
Chaoyun Li
Rong Luo
Matthew Magee
Vasanti S. Malik
J. Antonio Marin-Neto
Guy Marks
Bongani Mayosi
Helen McGuire
Renata Micha
J. Jaime Miranda
Pablo Aschner Montoya
Andrew E. Moran
Dariush Mozaffarian
Saraladevi Naicker
Nadraj G. Naidoo
K. M. Venkat Narayan
Irina Nikolic
Martin O'Donnell
Churchill Onen
Clive Osmond
Anushka Patel
Rogelio Perez-Padilla
Neil Poulter
Michael Pratt
Miriam Rabkin
Vikram Rajan
Anis Rassi
Anis Rassi Jr
Ishita Rawal
Giuseppe Remuzzi
Miguel Riella
Greg A. Roth
Ambuj Roy
Adolfo Rubinstein
Yuna Sakuma
Uchechukwu K. A. Sampson
Karen R. Siegel
Karen Sliwa, Australian Catholic University
Marc Suhrcke
Nikhil Tandon
Bernadette Thomas
Claudia Vaca
Rajesh Vedanthan
Stéphane Verguet
Michael Webb
Mary Beth Weber
Laurie Whitsel
Gary Wong
Lijing L. Yan
Clyde W. Yancy
Ping Zhang
Dong Zhao
Yishan Zhu

Publication Date



Summary Cardiovascular, respiratory, and related disorders (CVRDs) are the leading causes of adult death worldwide, and substantial inequalities in care of patients with CVRDs exist between countries of high income and countries of low and middle income. Based on current trends, the UN Sustainable Development Goal to reduce premature mortality due to CVRDs by a third by 2030 will be challenging for many countries of low and middle income. We did systematic literature reviews of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness to identify priority interventions. We summarise the key findings and present a costed essential package of interventions to reduce risk of and manage CVRDs. On a population level, we recommend tobacco taxation, bans on trans fats, and compulsory reduction of salt in manufactured food products. We suggest primary health services be strengthened through the establishment of locally endorsed guidelines and ensured availability of essential medications. The policy interventions and health service delivery package we suggest could serve as the cornerstone for the management of CVRDs, and afford substantial financial risk protection for vulnerable households. We estimate that full implementation of the essential package would cost an additional US$21 per person in the average low-income country and $24 in the average lower-middle-income country. The essential package we describe could be a starting place for low-income and middle-income countries developing universal health coverage packages. Interventions could be rolled out as disease burden demands and budgets allow. Our outlined interventions provide a pathway for countries attempting to convert the UN Sustainable Development Goal commitments into tangible action.


Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research

Document Type

Journal Article

Access Rights

ERA Access

Access may be restricted.