Publication Date

2016

Abstract

Insearchoftheiroptimalperformanceathleteswillaltertheirpacingstrategyaccordingtointrinsicandextrinsicphysiological,psychologicalandenvironmentalfactors.However,theeffectofsomeofthesevariablesonpacingandexerciseperformanceremainssomewhatunclear.Therefore,theaimofthismeta-analysiswastoprovideanoverviewastohowmanipulationofdifferentextrinsicfactorsaffectspacingstrategyandexerciseperformance.Onlyself-pacedexercisestudiesthatprovidedcontrolandinterventiongroup(s),reportedtrialvarianceforpoweroutput,disclosedthetypeoffeedbackreceivedorwithheld,andwheretime-trialpoweroutputdatacouldbesegmentedintostart,middleandendsections;wereincludedinthemeta-analysis.Studieswithsimilarthemesweregroupedtogethertodeterminethemeandifference(MD)with95%confidenceintervals(CIs)betweencontrolandinterventiontrialsfor:hypoxia,hyperoxia,heat-stress,pre-cooling,andvariousformsoffeedback.Atotalof26studieswithcyclingastheexercisemodalitywereincludedinthemeta-analysis.Ofthese,fourstudiesmanipulatedoxygenavailability,elevenmanipulatedheat-stress,fourimplementedpre-coolinginterventionsandsevenstudiesmanipulatedvariousformsoffeedback.Meanpoweroutput(MPO)wassignificantlyreducedinthemiddleandendsections(p < 0.05),butnotthestartsectionofhypoxiaandheat-stresstrialscomparedtothecontroltrials.Incontrast,therewasnosignificantchangeintrialorsectionMPOforhyperoxicorpre-coolingconditionscomparedtothecontrolcondition(p > 0.05).NegativefeedbackimprovedoveralltrialMPOandMPOinthemiddlesectionoftrials(p < 0.05),whileinformedfeedbackimprovedoveralltrialMPO(p < 0.05).However,positive,neutralandnofeedbackhadnosignificanteffectonoveralltrialorsectionMPO(p > 0.05).Theavailabledatasuggestsexerciseregulationinhypoxiaandheat-stressisdelayedinthestartsectionoftrials,beforesignificantreductionsinMPOoccurinthemiddleandendofthetrial.Additionally,negativefeedbackinvolvingperformancedeceptionmayaffordanupwardshiftinMPOinthemiddlesectionofthetrialimprovingoverallperformance.Finally,performanceimprovementscanberetainedwhenparticipantsareinformedofthedeception.

School/Institute

Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research

Document Type

Open Access Journal Article

Access Rights

Open Access

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