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Longitudinal invariance of perceived body composition for elite athletes and non-athletes was assessed on the basis of responses from 4 age cohorts (grades 7–10 in high school) who completed the same multi-item instrument 4 times over a 2-year period (multiple waves). Cohort-sequence designs such as this provide a stronger basis for assessing developmental stability/change than either cross-sectional (multi-cohort, single occasion) or longitudinal (single-cohort, multiple occasion) designs. Here we demonstrate different approaches to evaluating measurement invariance across the 5-year span (grades 7–11) and 4 cohorts, leading to tests of longitudinal stability/change based on latent means as a function of athlete/non-athlete and gender groups.


Institute for Positive Psychology and Education

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Open Access Book Chapter

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Open Access

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© 2016. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.