Marsh, H. W, Parker, P. D & Morin, AJ. (2016). Invariance testing across samples and time: Cohort-sequence analysis of perceived body composition [accepted manuscript]. N. Ntoumanis, N.D. Myers. An introduction to intermediate and advanced statistical analyses for sport and exercise scientists 101-130. United States: WileyBlackwell Publishing, Inc..
Longitudinal invariance of perceived body composition for elite athletes and non-athletes was assessed on the basis of responses from 4 age cohorts (grades 7–10 in high school) who completed the same multi-item instrument 4 times over a 2-year period (multiple waves). Cohort-sequence designs such as this provide a stronger basis for assessing developmental stability/change than either cross-sectional (multi-cohort, single occasion) or longitudinal (single-cohort, multiple occasion) designs. Here we demonstrate different approaches to evaluating measurement invariance across the 5-year span (grades 7–11) and 4 cohorts, leading to tests of longitudinal stability/change based on latent means as a function of athlete/non-athlete and gender groups.
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