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Previous research on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) has five main limitations. First, no study provided evidence of the factorial equivalence of this instrument across samples of depressive and community participants. Second, only one study included systematic tests of measurement invariance based on confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), and this study did not consider the higher-order factor structure of depression, although it is the CES-D global scale score that is most often used in the context of epidemiological studies. Third, few studies investigated the screening properties of the CES-D in non-English-language samples and their results were inconsistent. Fourth, although the French version of the CES-D has been used in several previous studies, it has never been systematically validated among community and/or depressed adults. Finally, very few studies have taken into account the ordered-categorical nature of the CES-D answer scale. The purpose of the study reported herein was therefore to examine the construct validity (i.e., factorial, reliability, measurement invariance, latent mean invariance, convergence, and screening properties) of the CES-D in a French sample of depressed patients and community adults.


Institute for Positive Psychology and Education

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Journal Article

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