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This paper presents findings based on 8883 participants from 33 countries. It employs mixture modeling (latent profile analysis) to classify individuals into latent classes/groups. The analyses are based on 12 factor scores from the domains of social attitudes (3 factors), social axioms (5 factors) and social norms (4 factors). Five latent classes were identified and most countries tend to have individual members from each class. The three largest groups consisting of 75% of the total number of participants differed in terms of the mean levels on factor scores. Group 1, labeled Liberal, had low mean factor scores on 11 out of 12 measures. Group 2, labeled Moderate, had average factor scores and Conservative Group 3 had high scores. Participants from each group were more common in some and less common in other countries. European countries plus Australia and Canada had the largest number of individuals belonging to Liberal Group 1. Conservative Group 3 had large number of individuals from South Asia and South-East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. All other countries in our sample, including the USA, Russia and China had the largest number of people from the Moderate Group 2.


Institute for Positive Psychology and Education

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Journal Article

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