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Objective This paper aims to assess the potential crash risks across different traffic lanes (shoulder lane, median lane, and middle lane) near to ramps (before on-ramps, between ramps, and after off-ramps). Methods Field data are collected at seven locations (90 min for each location) during peak hours. Two risk indices based on time to collision, individual risk and societal risk are proposed to represent the distinct interpretations of risks to transport agencies and individual motorists. One-way ANOVA is applied to analyze the risk impact of ramps in various types of locations across distinct traffic lanes. Results Median lanes and sections after off-ramps have relatively lower risks compared to other lanes and sections. The individual and societal risks might not always be consistent since the two risk indices are proposed based on distinct perspectives: transport agencies focus on the crash/conflict frequencies in a road section and individual motorists concern more about the probability of being involved in a crash/conflict during their journey. Conclusions The differences in risks mainly result from the frequent lane-changing and merging activities. This model could be used to evaluate the performance of expressway ramp design.

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Journal Article

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