McCloskey, E., Johansson, H., Oden, A. & Kanis, JA. (2012). Fracture risk assessment. Clinical Biochemistry,45(12), 887-893. United States: Elsevier BV. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2012.05.001
Having traditionally relied on measurements of bone mineral density, it is now established that the consideration of other risk variables improves the categorisation of fracture risk. Whereas several models are available, the FRAX models are the most extensively used. The approach uses easily obtained clinical risk factors to estimate 10 year fracture probability, with or without femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), to enhance fracture risk prediction. It has been constructed and validated using primary data from population based cohorts around the world, including centres from North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. The FRAX® tool should not be considered as a gold standard, but rather as a platform technology on which to build as new validated risk indicators become available. Notwithstanding, the present models provide an aid to enhance patient assessment by the integration of clinical risk factors alone and/or in combination with BMD.
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