Publication Date



This paper is a practical guide to the essentials of statistical analysis and reporting of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). It is the first in a series of 4 educational papers on statistical issues for RCTs, which will also include statistical controversies in RCT reporting and interpretation, the fundamentals of design for RCTs, and statistical challenges in the design and monitoring of RCTs. Here, we concentrate on displaying results in tables and figures, estimating treatment effects, expressing uncertainty using confidence intervals, and using p values wisely to assess the strength of evidence for a treatment difference. The various methods and their interpretation are illustrated by recent, topical cardiology trial results. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2015;66:2536–49) © 2015 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation


Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research

Document Type

Open Access Journal Article

Access Rights

Open Access

Included in

Cardiology Commons