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Introduction: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at enhanced risk for macro- and microvascular complications. Albuminuria and/or reduced kidney function further enhances the vascular risk. We initiated the Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardio-Renal Endpoints (ALTITUDE). Aliskiren, a novel direct renin inhibitor, which lowers plasma renin activity, may thereby provide greater cardio-renal protection compared with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) alone. Materials and methods: ALTITUDE is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in high risk type 2 diabetic patients receiving aliskiren 300 mg once daily or placebo added to recommended cardio-renal protective treatment including ACEi or ARB, but not both. The number of patients randomized was 8606. Results: Baseline characteristics (median, IQR) are: age 65 (58, 72) years, male 68%, BMI 29.1 (25.7, 32.2) kg/m2, cardiovascular disease 47.9%, blood pressure 134.7 (126, 150)/74.3 (67, 81) mmHg, HbA1c 7.5 (6.6, 8.6)%, LDL-cholesterol 2.4 (1.9, 3.0) mmol/L, haemoglobin 130 (119, 143) g/L, serum creatinine 115 (91, 137) µmol/L, eGFR 51.7 (42, 65) ml/min per 1.73 m2, geometric mean UACR 198.9 (52, 2886) mg/g and frequency of micro/macroalbuminuria 25.7% and 58.2%. ALTITUDE is an event-driven trial to continue until 1628 patients experience a primary cardiovascular-renal event. Conclusions: ALTITUDE will determine the potential cardio-renal benefit and safety of aliskiren in combination with ACEi or ARB in high risk patients with type 2 diabetes.


Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research

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Open Access Journal Article

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Open Access

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Cardiology Commons