Publication Date



We will shortly celebrate the 25th anniversary of the publication of the Co-operative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study ( CONSENSUS ), a clinical trial which revolutionized the treatment of heart failure and highlighted the importance of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system ( RAAS ) in the pathophysiology of heart failure ( Figure 1 ). In this article I will give a brief, historical overview of this exciting quarter-century of discovery related to the RAAS. My focus is on the treatment of heart failure in patients with a low left ventricular ejection fraction.


Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research

Document Type

Journal Article

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