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Introduction and Methods: This study compared changes in myokine and myogenic genes following resistance exercise (3 sets of 12 repetitions of maximal unilateral knee extension) in 20 elderly men (67.8 ± 1.0 years) and 15 elderly women (67.2 ± 1.5 years). Results: Monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inhibitory protein (MIP)-1β, interleukin (IL)-6 and MyoD mRNA increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas myogenin and myostatin mRNA decreased significantly after exercise in both groups. Macrophage-1 (Mac-1) and MCP-3 mRNA did not change significantly after exercise in either group. MIP-1β, Mac-1 and myostatin mRNA were significantly higher before and after exercise in men compared with women. In contrast, MCP-3 and myogenin mRNA were significantly higher before and after exercise in the women compared with the men. Conclusions: In elderly individuals, gender influences the mRNA expression of certain myokines and growth factors, both at rest and after resistance exercise. These differences may influence muscle regeneration following muscle injury.

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