Duffield, C. M & Diers, D. (2011). Nursing staffing, nursing workload, the work environment and patient outcomes. Applied Nursing Research,24(4), 244-255. United States of America: W. B. Saunders Co., Ltd.. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2009.12.004
Nurse staffing (fewer RNs), increased workload, and unstable nursing unit environments were linked to negative patient outcomes including falls and medication errors on medical/surgical units in a mixed method study combining longitudinal data (5 years) and primary data collection.
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