Elliot, A. J, Murayama, K. & Pekrun, R. (2011). A 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Journal of Educational Psychology,103(3), 632-648. United States of America: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023952
In the present research, a 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is proposed and tested. The model is rooted in the definition and valence components of competence, and encompasses 6 goal constructs: task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, and other-avoidance. The results from 2 studies provided strong support for the proposed model, most notably the need to separate task-based and self-based goals. Studies 1 and 2 yielded data establishing the 3 × 2 structure of achievement goals, and Study 2 documented the antecedents and consequences of each of the goals in the 3 × 2 model. Terminological, conceptual, and applied issues pertaining to the 3 × 2 model are discussed.
Institute for Positive Psychology and Education
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