The impact of episodic and chronic poverty on child cognitive development
Najman, J. M, Hayatbakhsh, M. R, Heron, M. A, Bor, W., O'Callaghan, M. J & Williams, GM. (2009). The impact of episodic and chronic poverty on child cognitive development. Journal of Pediatrics,154 284-289. United States of America: Mosby. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.08.052
Objective: To determine whether changes in family poverty between pregnancy, early childhood, and adolescence predict child cognitive development at 14 years of age. Study design: We conducted a population-based prospective birth cohort study of 7223 mothers who gave birth to a live singleton baby, observed to 14 years of age. Family income was measured on 4 occasions from pregnancy to the 14-year follow-up. Child cognitive development was measured at the 14-year follow-up using the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices and Wide Range Achievement Test. Results: Poverty experienced at any stage of the child's development is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes. Exposure to poverty for a longer duration (birth to 14 years) is more detrimental to cognitive outcomes than experiencing poverty at only 1 period. For each additional exposure to poverty, the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices scores declined by 2.19 units and the Wide Range Achievement Test scores declined by 1.74 units.