Warmington, M. & Hulme, C. (2012). Phoneme awareness, visual-verbal paired-associate learning, and rapid automatized naming as predictors of individual differences in reading ability. Scientific Studies of Reading,16(1), 45-62. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2010.534832
This study examines the concurrent relationships between phoneme awareness, visual-verbal paired-associate learning, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading skills in 7- to 11-year-old children. Path analyses showed that visual-verbal paired-associate learning and RAN, but not phoneme awareness, were unique predictors of word recognition, whereas visual-verbal paired-associate learning, RAN, and phoneme awareness were predictors of nonword reading. These results suggest that visual-verbal paired-associate learning, RAN, and phoneme awareness tap related but far-from-identical processes and are important predictors of different aspects of reading skills in children.
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