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A growing body of research focuses on the self-conscious achievement emotion pride. However, studies investigating the relations of different types of achievement pride with individual antecedents, such as frames of reference, achievement goals, and achievement values, are largely lacking. This work describes a theoretical model designed to extend and clarify the study of achievement pride and introduces the Achievement Pride Scales (APS), which assess two types of pride, namely self-based pride and social comparison-based pride. The results document the reliability and internal validity of the scales. External validity is demonstrated in terms of relations with students’ frames of reference, achievement goals, and values. More specifically, whereas self-based pride was positively related to individual frames of reference and individual achievement values, social comparison-based pride was positively related to social frames of reference, performance-approach goals, and social achievement values. Implications for future research on achievement pride are discussed.


Institute for Positive Psychology and Education

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Journal Article

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