Bei, B., Wiley, J. F, Allen, N. B & Trinder, J. (2015). A cognitive vulnerability model of sleep and mood in adolescents under naturalistically restricted and extended sleep opportunities. Sleep,38(3), 453-461. United States of America: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4508
Study Objectives: School terms and vacations represent naturally occurring periods of restricted and extended sleep opportunities. A cognitive model of the relationships among objective sleep, subjective sleep, and negative mood was tested across these periods, with sleep-specific (i.e., dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep) and global (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes) cognitive vulnerabilities as moderators. Design: Longitudinal study over the last week of a school term (Time-E), the following 2-w vacation (Time-V), and the first week of the next term (Time-S). Setting: General community. Participants: 146 adolescents, 47.3% male, mean age = 16.2 years (standard deviation ± 1 year). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Objective sleep was measured continuously by actigraphy. Sociodemographics and cognitive vulnerabilities were assessed at Time-E; subjective sleep, negative mood (anxiety and depressive symptoms), and academic stress were measured at each time point. Controlling for academic stress and sex, subjective sleep quality mediated the relationship between objective sleep and negative mood at all time points. During extended (Time-V), but not restricted (Time-E and Time-S) sleep opportunity, this mediation was moderated by global cognitive vulnerability, with the indirect effects stronger with higher vulnerability. Further, at Time-E and Time-V, but not Time-S, greater sleep-specific and global cognitive vulnerabilities were associated with poorer subjective sleep quality and mood, respectively. Conclusions: Results highlighted the importance of subjective sleep perception in the development of sleep related mood problems, and supported the role of cognitive vulnerabilities as potential mechanisms in the relationships between objective sleep, subjective sleep, and negative mood. Adolescents with higher cognitive vulnerability are more susceptible to perceived poor sleep and sleep related mood problems. These findings have practical implications for interventions.
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