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This study proposed an improved representation of the factor structure of the Gaspard et al. (2015) value beliefs about math scale relying on bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (B-ESEM). Using a convenience sample of 537 Italian students (327 males; Mage = 18.2), our results supported the superiority of a B-ESEM solution including nine specific factors (intrinsic, importance of achievement, personal importance, utility for school/job, utility for life, social utility, effort required, opportunity cost, and emotional cost) and one global value factor. The results further revealed that the specific factors (with the exception of personal importance) retained meaning over and above participants’ global levels of value. Finally, our results confirmed that global value beliefs predicted career aspirations, whereas expectancies of success remained the strongest predictor of math achievement.


Institute for Positive Psychology and Education

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Open Access Journal Article

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Open Access