Publication Date



To successfully spell in an inconsistent orthography like French, students must learn to negotiate not only lexical spelling but grammatical spelling, too, with morphological markers that are often silent. We sought to examine different acquisition profiles, based on children's lexical and grammatical spelling development in Grades Three and Five. We used latent profile analysis to examine the relationship between lexical and grammatical spelling development in primary schoolchildren in France, by asking 244 children third and fifth graders to complete a series of tasks assessing their lexical and grammatical spelling performances. The latent profile analysis revealed different groups of spellers who differentially managed lexical and grammatical spelling, and more individual differences in spelling performances in Grade Three than in Grade Five. These findings are discussed in the light of previous findings on spelling development in nontransparent orthographies, in terms of different profiles in learning and mastering written language.


Institute for Positive Psychology and Education

Document Type

Journal Article

Access Rights

ERA Access

Access may be restricted.