Publication Date



Research in rural and remote schools and communities of Queensland resulted in the development and validation of the Rural and Remote Teaching, Working, Living and Learning Environment Survey (RRTWLLES). Samples of 252 teachers and 191 community members were used to validate the structure of this questionnaire. It was developed within the standard psychometric framework of instrument design. Eleven dimensions of importance to teachers in rural and remote communities were identified: Community Involvement, Personal Safety, Personal Dislocation, Community Services, Social Inclusivity, Staff Affiliation, Administration Team Support, Mission Consensus, Teacher Aide Support, Opportunities for Professional Learning, and Resource Adequacy. Very sound internal consistency reliability was found for all 11 scales. Multilevel analysis revealed significant differences between teacher and community member scores for Personal Dislocation and Social Inclusivity. The RRTWLLES has the potential to assist rural and remote educators, researchers, teachers and community members.


School of Education

Document Type

Journal Article

Access Rights

ERA Access

Access may be restricted.