Publication Date



This article presents a focused analysis of teacher and student interaction in feedback conversationsto contribute to an understanding of feedback as a dialogic process. Extending the work of previousresearch, two new and detailed coding frameworks—one for teacher feedback and another for stu-dent feedback—were developed to capture teacher–student interactions in feedback conversations.The codings were used to quantitatively and qualitatively analyse how opportunities were opened orclosed for student contribution. The article draws on data from video and audio recordings andtranscripts from 12 participants (six teacher/student pairs in Year 9 in secondary schools in a rangeof discipline areas), involved in one-to-one feedback conversations. The study took place in a stan-dards-based assessment system where criteria and standards (rubrics) are the basis of teacher judge-ment of student performance. Taking an inclusive research approach, student participants includedstudents who had identified special learning needs. The findings identify how the shifts in teacher–student feedback conversations can be captured to demonstrate the intricacies of these interactionsand, in particular, how the development of student self-regulatory skills was supported in some con-versations but not in others. The study demonstrates how the dialogic nature of feedback can con-tribute to learning for both student and teacher.


Institute for Learning Sciences and Teacher Education

Document Type

Journal Article

Access Rights

ERA Access

Access may be restricted.