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One hundred forty-one teachers in grades 3–8 indicated how frequently they made 24 writinginstructional adaptations for students with disabilities. They also rated the acceptability ofeach of the 24 adaptations on three dimensions: effectiveness, effort needed to implement,and implementation knowledge. Teachers reported making 16 different adaptations monthlyor more often, and 10 at least weekly. The most common adaptation was allowing extra timeto complete writing assignments. The least common adaptations included extra handwritinginstruction, opportunities to compose via dictation, and homework to reinforce skills. Teachersviewed most of the adaptations as acceptable, and views on acceptability made a uniquecontribution to predicting reported use of adaptations, after variance due to student and otherteacher variables was controlled.


Institute for Learning Sciences and Teacher Education

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Journal Article

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