Bhargava, R. (2014). How secular is European secularism?. European Societies,16(3), 329-336. United Kingdom: Routledge. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/14616696.2014.916335
European Secularism, one of the many versions of secularism available in the world, was developed in the context predominantly of single-religion societies, after a great deal of religious homogenization had already taken place. It was and remains a modest secularism. However, with the migration of workers from former colonies and the intensification of globalization, pre-Christian (Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain) and post-Christian faiths (Islam and Sikhism) have been thrown together for the first time in modern Europe creating an unprecedented diversity the like of which has not been witnessed in Europe under conditions of modernity. This has destabilized European secular states and the conception of secularism that underpins them. European Secularism is in crisis for as it now turns out it is not quite secular enough.
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