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The What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire was validated cross-nationally using a sample of 3980 high school students from Australia, the UK and Canada. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the seven-scale a priori structure of the instrument. Fit statistics indicated a good fit of the model to the data. While all items loaded strongly on their a priori factor, model fit indices revealed a degree of scale overlap. The use of multi-sample analyses within structural equation modelling substantiated invariant factor structures for three grouping variables: country, grade level and student gender. This study supported the wide international applicability of the WIHIC as a valid measure of classroom psychosocial environment.


School of Education

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Journal Article

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