Dorman, J. (2003). Cross-national validation of the What is Happening in this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire using confirmatory factor analysis. Learning Environments Research,6(231), 231-245. Netherlands: Springer Netherlands. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1027355123577
The What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire was validated cross-nationally using a sample of 3980 high school students from Australia, the UK and Canada. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the seven-scale a priori structure of the instrument. Fit statistics indicated a good fit of the model to the data. While all items loaded strongly on their a priori factor, model fit indices revealed a degree of scale overlap. The use of multi-sample analyses within structural equation modelling substantiated invariant factor structures for three grouping variables: country, grade level and student gender. This study supported the wide international applicability of the WIHIC as a valid measure of classroom psychosocial environment.
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