Zajda, J. (2010). The politics of education reforms and policy shifts in the Russian Federation. 191-197. The Netherlands: Springer. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-3524-0_11
In 1982, at the height of the Cold War between the two superpowers, the USA and the USSR, the four critical issues in education policy directions for the next 2 decades in the world, identified by Coombs (1982), included: New internal strategies (more comprehensive, flexible and innovative modes of learning) that took into account the changing and expanding learner needs Overcoming “unacceptable” socio-economic educational disparities and inequalities Improving educational quality Harmonizing education and culture “International co-operation” in education and policy directions in each country (Coombs 1982, pp. 145-157)
School of Education
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