Publication Date



In 1982, at the height of the Cold War between the two superpowers, the USA and the USSR, the four critical issues in education policy directions for the next 2 decades in the world, identified by Coombs (1982), included: New internal strategies (more comprehensive, flexible and innovative modes of learning) that took into account the changing and expanding learner needs Overcoming “unacceptable” socio-economic educational disparities and inequalities Improving educational quality Harmonizing education and culture “International co-operation” in education and policy directions in each country (Coombs 1982, pp. 145-157)


School of Education

Document Type

Book Chapter

Access Rights

ERA Access

Access may be restricted.