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A review of the literature about student use of ICT ond the impoct of ICT use on learning reveals a complexity of rationales and terminology that underwrite ICT initiatives; various dimensions and stages of integration; inherent methodological difficulties; obstacles to integration such as teacher ICT confidence, expertise and beliefs about the potentiol for tCT to moke a difference to student learning; teacher professional development; school technologicol infrastructure and support; and the need for ICT leodership (Jomieson-Proctor, Burnett, Finger, & Watson, zoo6). This poper investigotes the overarching research guestion - Are ICT initiatives hoving the desired impoct on teaching and learning in schools? It provides a synthesis of the results of recent investigations by us in Queensland State and Catholic schools involving z65z teachers from 68 schools across the two systems. Significant statisticol findings that link teachers' confidence in using ICT with students, to the quantity and quality of students' use of ICT for learning are highlighted. The findings support the hypothesis that current ICT initiatives are having less than the desired result in both Queensland systems. The paper concludes with a call for Australia-wide research to unpock and address the factors, such as teacher confidence, that are currently constraining the use of ICT within Austra Ii a n sch oo li ng syste m s

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