Publication Date



This study presents preliminary validation data on both the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire—Acquired Brain Injury (AAQ-ABI) and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire—II (AAQ-II). Data from 150 participants with ABI was subject to exploratory factor analysis on the AAQ-ABI (15 items). A subset of 75 participants with ABI completed a larger battery of measures to test construct validity for the AAQ-ABI and to undertake a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the AAQ-II (7 items). Three meaningful factors were identified on the AAQ-ABI: Reactive Avoidance, Denial, and Active Acceptance. Reactive Avoidance demonstrated good internal and test–retest consistency (α = .89) and correlated in expected directions with other related measures including the AAQ-II. CFA of the AAQ-II did not provide a good fit but did have similar correlations with measures of psychological distress as found in prior non-ABI samples. The results suggest both measures can be used with individuals following an ABI but they index different facets of psychological flexibility. The AAQ-ABI appears to measure psychological flexibility about the thoughts and feelings relating to the brain injury itself while the AAQ-II measures psychological flexibility around general psychological distress. Future research could explore the additional 2 factors of the AAQ-ABI and use these measures in outcome studies that promote psychological flexibility in individuals with an ABI.


Institute for Positive Psychology and Education

Document Type

Journal Article

Access Rights

ERA Access

Access may be restricted.